Best Practices for Writing Secure Java Code

Java is one of the most broadly used programming languages on the planet, utilised to make a combination of applications, from desktop and web applications to mobile apps and enterprise software.  With its comprehensive use, security becomes a significant concern for Java developers. As a developer, it’s paramount to register secured Java code to shield your application and users from cyber threats.

In this blog post, we will explore the best practices for writing secured Java code that can assist you in building more protected programs.

Utilise the Latest Java Version

One of the best practices for writing secure Java code is to use the most delinquent Java version.

New Java versions come with improved security features and patches that address any security issues present in the previous version. Using the latest Java version ensures that your application is not vulnerable to known security vulnerabilities. In addition, the latest Java version comes with improved performance, which can benefit your application.

Validate All Input

Writing secure Java code requires writing input validation, which is fundamental. Any data that comes into your application, whether it’s from a user or an external source, should be validated. If input validation is not performed, it may lead to several security vulnerabilities, including but not limited to SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), and buffer overflow. Validating input involves checking for the correct data type, format, and length. You can use techniques such as regex and input sanitisation to validate input.

Avoid Using Hard-Coded Passwords and Secrets

Hard-coding passwords and secrets in your Java code can be risky, as they are easily accessible to anyone who has access to your code. Avoiding hard-coding passwords and secrets is a good practice for writing secure Java code. One alternative is to utilise a configuration file or environment variables to secure confidential information rather than another method. This way, the data is not visible in your code, making it more secure.

Securely Store Sensitive Data

To prevent unauthorised access, it’s crucial to securely store sensitive information such as passwords, API keys, and tokens. Storing sensitive data in plain text is not secure, as anyone with access to the data can easily read it. Instead, you can use encryption and hashing techniques to store sensitive data. Encryption involves converting the data into a ciphertext that someone with the key can only read. Hashing involves converting the data into a fixed-length string, making it difficult to reverse engineer.

Use Safe Java Libraries

Using safe and reliable Java libraries is crucial for writing secure Java code. Unsafe Java libraries can contain security vulnerabilities that can compromise your application. To ensure that you use safe Java libraries, you can use reputable sources such as the Apache Software Foundation, the Eclipse Foundation, or the Spring Framework. In addition, you should check for vulnerabilities in the libraries and maintain up-to-date libraries.

Limit Access to Resources

Limiting access to resources such as databases, files, and APIs is another best practice for writing secure Java code. The absence of limitations on resource access may lead to unauthorised alterations, deletion, or acquisition of data. You can implement access controls to limit access to resources. 

Access controls entail determining which individuals or entities are authorised to access specific resources and defining the actions they are permitted to undertake. In addition, you can also safeguard the communication between your application and resources by utilising secure communication protocols such as HTTPS and SSL.

Implement Secure Communication Protocols

In order to write secure Java code, it is essential to incorporate secure communication protocols like HTTPS, SSL, and TLS. These protocols ensure that communication between your application and external resources is encrypted, preventing eavesdropping and man-in-the-middle attacks. When using secure communication protocols, you should ensure that you use trusted certificate authorities and implement certificate pinning to prevent certificate spoofing.

Implement Secure Authentication and Authorization

It is essential to incorporate authentication and authorisation measures to ensure the security of Java code. To clarify, authentication is the process of confirming the identity of either users or resources, whereas authorisation pertains to allowing access solely to those users or resources that have been authorised to do so. 

To ensure that only authorised users can access your application and its resources, it’s possible to implement secure authentication and authorisation mechanisms. One way to achieve this is by utilising secure password storage and implementing multi-factor authentication. It is important to make sure that users are granted access only to the resources they require for their tasks, using the principle of least privilege.

Implement Error Handling and Logging

Writing secure Java code necessitates the incorporation of error handling and logging. Error handling involves detecting and handling errors in your code, while logging involves recording information about errors and events in your application. 

Proper error handling and logging can help you identify and troubleshoot security issues in your application. Furthermore, the utilisation of tools like intrusion detection and prevention systems can aid in identifying and stopping security breaches.

Regularly Test Your Code

Java code testing is a crucial aspect of writing secure Java code. By conducting tests, you can detect and resolve security weaknesses prior to their exploitation. Identifying vulnerabilities in your code is possible by utilising techniques like static code analysis and penetration testing. Additionally, you can conduct regular security audits to ensure that your application remains secure.


It is imperative to write Java code that is secure to safeguard both your application and users against potential security threats. Following the best practices discussed in this post, you can build more secure Java applications that are less vulnerable to cyber threats. Always remember to keep up-to-date with the latest security threats and solutions and maintain a proactive security mindset when developing Java applications.

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